An educational blog devoted to Florida contruction law topics by Florida Bar Board Certified Construction Lawyer, Trenton "Trent" Cotney. Please visit www.trentcotney.com for more information. Disclaimer below.
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Famous American Buildings made out of Limeston
Limestone has been utilised throughout the ages and is a popular material within building and construction. We take a look at famous American buildings made out of limestone which still remain today and are iconic within America.
The Pentagon, United States
At 6,500,000 square feet, the Pentagon in Arlington County, Virginia is the world’s largest office building and serves as the headquarters for the United States Department of Defense.
Designed by American architect George Bergstrom and constructed by contractor John McShain, reinforced concrete was implemented alongside Indiana limestone for the building’s exterior as a result of the lack of steel from the Second World War.
Rebuilt after September 11 2001, the building now houses over 23,000 employees and is one of the most famous buildings within America.
The Lincoln Memorial, United States
Constructed to honour Abraham Lincoln, 16th President of the United States, the Lincoln Memorial was built between 1914 and 1922. Designed by architect Henry Bacon and incorporating classical features, the build also has a statue of Lincoln within the interior, constructed by Daniel Chester French.
Interior walls and columns are made from Indiana limestone, beside marble and granite which have been utilized to represent different areas within the United States.
The area is still a tourist attraction and has become listed on the National Register of Historic Places since 1966.
The Empire State Building, New York
The iconic Empire State Building, situated in Manhattan, New York is the fifth tallest skyscraper in America and has been a National Historic Landmark since 1986. Completed in 1931, it has become the tallest building to obtain the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design after an extensive $550 million renovation in 2010.
Designed by William F. Lamb from Shreve Lamb and Harmon, Indiana limestone has been incorporated into the build, in addition to art deco influences.
Reaching a height of 443.092 metres, the building incorporates over 1,000 businesses and over 21,000 employees, alongside 73 elevators and observation decks. The construction is now the second largest single office space within America.
Washington National Cathedral, United States
Built from Indiana limestone, the Washington National Cathedral took over 80 years to build, but is now the sixth largest cathedral in the world. Completed in 1990, the cathedral incorporates Gothic architectural styles, with over 400 gargoyles, stained glass windows, ornate carvings and pointed arches within its design.
The cathedral is also the burial place for Helen Keller, Woodrow Wilson and Architects Henry Vaughan and Philip Frohman.
A claim for unjust enrichment may be brought against a contractor or owner as an equitable claim to address unexecuted change orders. As the Court stated in Della Ratta v. Della Ratta, 927 So.2d 1055 (Fla. 4th DCA 2006), "to state a claim for unjust enrichment, a plaintiff must plead the following elements:1) the plaintiff has conferred a benefit on the defendant;2) the defendant has knowledge of the benefit;3) the defendant has accepted or retained the benefit conferred;and 4) the circumstances are such that it would be inequitable for the defendant to retain the benefit without paying fair value for it." Trenton H. Cotney Florida Bar Certified in Construction Law Glenn Rasmussen Fogarty & Hooker, P.A. 100 S. Ashley Dr., Suite 1300 Tampa, FL 33602 (813) 229-3333http://www.glennrasmussen.com
The elements necessary to state a cause of action for fraud in the inducement are 1) a false statement concerning a material fact, 2) knowledge by the person making the statement that the representation is false, 3) intent by the person making the statement that the representation will induce another to act upon it, and 4) reliance on the representation to the injury of the other party. Mettler, Inc. v. Ellen Tracy, Inc., 648 So.2d 253 (Fla. 2d DCA 1994). Trenton H. Cotney Florida Bar Certified in Construction Law Glenn Rasmussen Fogarty & Hooker, P.A. 100 S. Ashley Dr., Suite 1300 Tampa, FL 33602 (813) 229-3333 http://www.glennrasmussen.com
Butler v. Yusem, 44 So.3d 102 (Fla. 2010): "there are four elements to fraudulent misrepresentation: (1) a false statement concerning a material fact; (2) the representor's knowledge that the representation is false; (3) an intention that the representation induce another to act on it; and (4) consequent injury by the party acting in reliance on the representation."
Trenton H. Cotney Board Certified in Construction LawTrent Cotney, P.A.1207 N Franklin St, Ste 222Tampa, FL 33602(813) 579-3278www.trentcotney.com